A technological marvel by which deep and remotely located lesions in the brain and spine can be accessed. The procedure involves small opening in the skull or the spine through which thin instruments fitted with light and camera (endoscope) is introduced. The surgeon follows the picture of the interior by looking at the TV screen and operates with microinstruments passed through the scope. The procedure is minimalistic, the opening and closing being small, avoids many complications associated with conventional open operations. The hospital stay and associated costs are also less and the patient returns to work very soon. The diseases treated with this technique are hydrocephalus (water in the brain), arachnoid cysts (water filled sac in the brain), tumors (pituitary gland, intraventricular tumors, pineal tumors), cysts (colloid cysts), lumbar and thoracic disc prolapse (in selected cases). Especially in hydrocephalus in children, this procedure has been a miracle in getting them rid of shunts- the traditional treatment of hydrocephalus which has risk of infection, blockage.